Part A (20 x 2 = 40 Marks)
- Differentiate between compressible and incompressible fluids.
- What is kinematic viscosity? Write its unit.
- Write the physical significance of Reynolds number.
- What is the relationship between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number in the Stoke's law range (Reynolds number < 1)?
- Write the principle of orifice meter.
- What is the head loss of the fluid at the entrance of a straight pipe?
- Explain 'Cavitation' in pumps.
- Define 'Minimum fluidization velocity'.
- Define 'Equivalent diameter' for fluid flow through channels of non-circular cross section.
- Write the principle of Magnetic flow meter.
- Write continuity equation for three dimensional motion of an incompressible fluid.
- Give two industrial applications of packed beds.
- Write Bernoulli's equation. State its assumptions.
- Differentiate between reciprocating and centrifugal pumps.
- Explain the principle of hot wire anemometer.
- Define 'Volumetric efficiency' of the positive displacement pump.
- Define NPSH in centrifugal pumps.
- What are the two types of fluidization?
- Write the Hagen Poiseuille's equation for laminar flow in Newtonian fluid.
- Pressure drop is __________ in globe valve as compared to gate valve.
Part B (5 x 12 = 60 Marks)
- (a) Classify fluids. With the help of a neat sketch, explain the principle and applications of an inclined manometer. (6)
(b) Define hydrostatic equilibrium. Express mathematically the condition of hydrostatic equilibrium. (6)
- (a) An open tank holds certain amount of liquid whose relative density is 1.25. The tank is fitted with a manometer to a certain point of its wall and it shows a pressure of Pgage = 0.35 atm, what is the height of liquid level in the tank from the point of connection of the manometer. (4)
(b) What are the advantages of dimensional analysis? State Buckingham p theorem. (4)
(c) What are the time-dependent fluids? Classify them with examples. (4)
- (a) Define Fanning's friction factor. How is it related to the pressure drop? (6)
(b) Prove for laminar flow of Newtonian fluids through a pipe, u/umax = 1 - (r/rw)2 (6)
- (a) Write the continuity and momentum equations for one-dimensional fluid flow. (4)
(b) Discuss the boundary layer formation during laminar and turbulent fluid flow. (4)
(c) How will you calculate the Reynolds number and friction factor for a pseudo plastic fluid? (4)
- (a) Explain the principle, construction and working of a venturi meter with the help of a neat sketch. (6)
(b) A horizontal venturi meter having a throat diameter of 20 mm is set in a 75 mm I.D. pipeline. Water at 15oC is flowing through the line. A manometer containing mercury under water measures the pressure differential over the instrument. When the manometer reading is 500 mm, calculate the flow rate. Take Cd = 0.98. (6)
- (a) With the help of a neat sketch, explain the working principle and operation of a rotameter. (6)
(b) Explain the velocity measurement by Pitot tube with the help of a neat sketch. (6)
- (a) Derive Ergun's equation for determining the pressure drop through a packed bed. (6)
(b) Write the important applications of fluidization technique in industries. (6)
- (a) Explain the terms 'Loading' and 'Flooding' in packed towers. (4)
(b) A packed bed of catalyst consisting of spherical particles of 150 mm diameter is subjected to fluidization by using oil of density 900 kg/m3. If the density of particles be 2500 kg/m3, determine the mass flow rate of oil per unit area of bed to initiate fluidization. Porosity of bed = 0.48, dynamic viscosity of oil is 0.003 Pa.s. Assume flow condition to be laminar. (8)
- (a) Classify positive displacement pumps. Explain the function of each one of them with a neat sketch. (6)
(b) An air-lift pump raises water from a well of 120 m deep through a pipe of ID = 100 mm at the rate of 90 m3/hr. Determine the efficiency of pump.
Water level is 45 m below the surface. Air consumption = 400 m3/hr of free air compressed to 900 kN/m2; ratio of specific heats of air (g
) = 1.4. (6)
- (a) Compare between centrifugal and reciprocating pumps. (6)
(b) Write briefly the characteristic features and applications of fans, blowers and compressors. (6)