### Fluid Pressure

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In a stationary fluid the pressure is exerted equally in all directions and is referred to as the static pressure. In a moving fluid, the static pressure is exerted on any plane parallel to the direction of motion. The fluid pressure exerted on a plane right angles to the direction of flow is greater than the static pressure because the surface has, in addition, to exert sufficient force to bring the fluid to rest. The additional pressure is proportional to the kinetic energy of fluid; it cannot be measured independently of the static pressure.

When the static pressure in a moving fluid is to be determined, the measuring surface must be parallel to the direction of flow so that no kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy at the surface. If the fluid is flowing in a circular pipe the measuring surface must be perpendicular to the radial direction at any point. The pressure connection, which is known as a piezometer tube, should flush with the wall of the pipe so that the flow is not disturbed: the pressure is then measured near the walls were the velocity is a minimum and the reading would be subject only to a small error if the surface were not quite parallel to the direction of flow.

The static pressure should always be measured at a distance of not less than 50 diameters from bends or other obstructions, so that the flow lines are almost parallel to the walls of the tube. If there are likely to be large cross-currents or eddies, a piezometer ring should be used. This consists of 4 pressure tappings equally spaced at 90o intervals round the circumference of the tube; they are joined by a circular tube which is connected to the pressure measuring device. By this means, false readings due to irregular flow or avoided. If the pressure on one side of the tube is relatively high, the pressure on the opposite side is generally correspondingly low; with the piezometer ring a mean value is obtained.