Chemical Engineering Learning Resources

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Thermodynamics

First Law

Adiabatic Compression

220 kg of CO2 gas at 27oC and 1 atm is compressed adiabatically to 1/5th of its volume. It is then cooled to its original temperature at constant volume.

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PVT Data from Compressibility Factor Chart

Nitrogen gas at a pressure of 100 Bar and -70oC is contained in a tank of 0.25 m3. Heat is added until the temperature is 37oC.

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Constant Pressure Heat Addition

A vertical cylinder with a freely floating piston contains 0.1 kg air at 1.2 bar and a small electric resistor.

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Constant Volume Heat Addition

A 28 liter rigid enclosure contains air at 140 kPa and 20oC. Heat is added to the container until the pressure reaches 345 kPa.

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First law cycle work

A thermodynamic system undergoes a cycle composed of a series of three processes for which Q1 = +10 kJ, Q2 = +30 kJ, Q3 = -5 kJ

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Constant Volume Heating - Constant Pressure Cooling

Air is compressed from 2 atm absolute and 28oC to 6 atm absolute and 28oC by heating at constant volume followed by cooling

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Constant Internal Energy Process

A tank having a volume of 0.1 m3 contains air at 14 MPa and 50oC. It is connected through a valve to a larger tank having a volume of 15 m3

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Change in Temperature due to Enthalpy Change

Liquid water at 25oC flows in a straight horizontal pipe, in which there is no exchange of either heat or work with the surroundings

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Isothermal followed by Isochoric Process

An existing process consists of two steps:

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Constant Pressure Heating

One kilogram of air is heated reversibly at constant pressure from an initial state of 300 K and 1 bar until its volume triples.

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Isothermal-Isochoric Process

One mole of an ideal gas, initially at 20oC and 1 bar, undergoes the following mechanically reversible changes.

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Enthalpy Change of Water

Liquid water at 100oC and 1 bar has an internal energy (on an arbitrary scale) of 419 kJ/kg and a specific volume of 1.044 cm3/g.

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Conversion of Water to Steam

Water flows through a horizontal coil heated from outside. During its passage, it changes state from liquid at 200 kPa and 80oC

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Entropy

Entropy Change of Air

Calculate the change in entropy when 10 kg of air is heated at constant volume from a pressure of 101325 N/m2

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Reversible Heat Engine

A heat engine receives 500 BTU of heat per cycle from a reservoir at 540oF and rejects heat to a sink at 40oF in a hypothetical amounts of (a) 375 BTU per

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Thermal efficiency of power plant

A power plant operates with a heat source reservoir at 350oC and a heat sink reservoir at 30oC.

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Entropy Change in Heat Exchange

An ideal gas CP = 7R/2 is heated in a steady flow heat exchanger from 70oC to 190oC, by another stream of the same ideal gas entering at 320oC.

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Entropy Change in Mixing of Two Gases

What is the change in entropy when 0.7 m3 of CO2 and 0.3 m3 of N2 each at 1 bar and 25oC blend to form a homogenous mixture at the same conditions.

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Entropy Change in Heat Exchange of Liquids

A heat exchanger uses 5000 kg/hr of water to cool hydrocarbon oil from 140oC to 65oC.

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Entropy Change in Adiabatic Heat Exchange

A lump of copper having a mass of 10 gm at a temperature of 500oC is just dropped into a well insulated bucket containing 100 gm

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Thermodynamic Property Relations

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Phase Equilibria

Triple point temperature and pressure of Ammonia

In the vicinity of the triple point, the vapor pressures of liquid and solid ammonia are respectively given by

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T-x-y Diagram of Ideal Solution

From the following vapor pressure data, construct the temperature - composition diagram at 1 atm, for the system benzene-toluene,

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