Chemical Engineering Learning Resources

### Unit-I

 Introduction Differences between fluid and solid Differences between gas and liquid Types of fluids Newtonian & non-Newtonian fluids Compressible & incompressible fluids Physical properties: Viscosity Vapor pressure Compressibility and Bulkmodulus Surface tension Capillarity Problems - SurfaceTension Fluid statics: Pascal's law for pressure at a pointin a fluid Variation of pressure in a Static fluid Absolute and gauge pressure,vacuum Pressure Measurement Fluid Pressure Barometers Piezo meters Manometers Introduction Simple U-tube manometer Inverted U-tube manometer Manometer with one leg enlarged Two fluid U-tube manometer Inclined U-tube manometer Manometer - limitations Pressure gauges - Bourdon gauge Pressure Measurement Units and Dimensions Similitude and model studies: Kinematic and dynamic similarities DimensionalAnalysis: Rayleigh's method Buckingham pi method Important DimensionlessNumbers Mach number Nozzles & diffusers Maximum velocity Two dimensional flow Velocity potential Potential function

### Unit-II

 Fluid flow: Stream line Stream tube Steady & Uniform flows One-dimensional & multidimensional flow Equation of continuity Energy equation - Bernoulli's equation Tank training problem Momentum equation Toricellie equation Trajectory of a liquid-jet issued upwards in the atmosphere Trajectory of a jet issued from an orifice at the side of a tank Laminar and Turbulent flow Boundary layer concepts: Introduction Development of boundary layer for flow over a flat plate Development of boundary layer for flow through circular pipe Entry length Fully developed flow Boundary layer separation Flow of incompressible fluid in pipes: Hagen Poiseuille equation Friction factor Pressure drop in turbulent flow Velocity Distribution for turbulent flow Surface roughness Laminar flow Flow through non-circular pipes Flow through curved pipes Expansion losses Contraction losses Losses for flow through fittings Equivalent length of pipe fittings Types of flow problems Compressible fluid flow: Equations of compressible flow Velocity of sound in fluid

### Unit-III

 Closed channel flow measurement: Venturi meter Orifice meter Venturi - Orifice Comparison Pitot tube Rotameter Flow measurement based on Doppler effect Hot wire and hot film anemometer Magnetic flow meter Open channel flow measurement: Elementary theory of weirs and notches Rectangular notch V-notch Suppressed and contracted weirs Submerged weirs Trapezoidal notch and Fluidization Types Motion of particle through fluid Terminal settling velocity Operating ranges of fluidization Applications of fluidization Pneumatic transport

### Unit-IV

 Flow past immersed bodies: Form drag Wall drag Drag coefficients Friction in flow through bed of solids: Blake-Kozeny Equation Burke-Plummer Equation Ergun equation Packed Towers: Applications Various types of packing Requirements for a good packing Loading and Flooding Fluidization: Minimum fluidizing velocity Pressure Drop in Fluidized bed Jet pump Selection of pumps Fans, blowers, and compressors Appendix Key Contributors to Fluid Mechanics

### Unit-V

 Transportation of fluids: Pump classifications Suction, discharge , net pressure heads, specific speed and power calculations NPSH Characteristics and constructional details of centrifugal pumps Cavitation Priming Positive displacement pumps: Piston pumps - single and double acting Plunger pumps Diaphragm pump Rotary pumps Gear pumps Lobe pumps Screw pumps Airlift pump