- State at least three equations of state for gases and discuss the general applicability of these equations.
- What is "Compressibility factor"? What is a generalized compressibility factor chart? Construct qualitatively such a chart for low pressure range and discuss its use.
- Explain the concept of entropy.
- Derive Maxwell equations.
- Derive an expression for the work involved in case of an ideal single stage reciprocating compressor having no clearance volume.
- What do you understand by convergent, divergent and convergent-divergent nozzle. Explain their applications.
- Explain what do you mean by available energy.
- What do you understand by standard free energy change?
- Derive an expression for the efficiency of a Carnot cycle.
- With the help of temperature-entropy diagram and flow diagram, explain the working of a single stage vapor compression refrigeration system. Deduce expressions for the coefficient of performance, and horse power requirement per ton of refrigeration.
- What is Carnot's principle? With the help of Carnot's principle, show mathematically that it is possible to define an absolute temperature scale, independent of the properties of any particular substance. How would you fix up the length of a degree in such an absolute scale of temperature?
- What should be the desirable properties of a refrigerant for a vapor compression refrigeration system?
- Mention the advantages of multistage compression.
- State first law of thermodynamics and derive an energy equation for a steady state flow process.
- Deduce Gibbs-Duhem equation in terms of activity coefficients.
- What is meant by residual volume of a gas? Show mathematically that the residual volume of a gas does not necessarily approach zero as the temperature approaches zero along an isotherm.
- Discuss the T-
*x*-*y*, P-*x*-*y*and P'-T (vapor pressure vs temperature) diagram for binary miscible systems. How does pressure affect the T-*x*-*y*diagram? - Discuss Margules, Wohl and Wilson equation for estimation of activity coefficient.
- Explain the terms fugacity, chemical potential and activity.
- Derive the expression for volumetric efficiency in a single stage compressor.
- Show that Van Laar equation satisfies the Gibbs-Duhem equation.
- Discuss the effects of pressure, inerts, reactants ratio and temperature on chemical reactions.
- What is the significance of the second law of thermodynamics with respect to transformation of energy? Briefly make a general statement of the law.
- What is the objective of arranging for compressing air in stages with intermediate water cooling to the original atmospheric temperature? Give the usual rules for the values of the intermediate pressures in the case of (i) two stage and (ii) three stage compressor.
- Discuss partial molal properties.
- Discuss Retrograde condensation.